Caesar quaestor in Spain
1: speech against Rullus’s Agrarian bill;
2: Defence of Rabirius, accused (by JC?) of a murder that happened 37 years previously – the ’tiling’ of Saturninus under the SCU;
3: Catilinarian Conspiracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus
Tribune Metellus Nepos stopped Cicero from delivering his farewell address ‘because he had killed Roman citizens without trial’.
Caesar praetor – divorced wife (perhaps Clodius’ lover) but did not help in Clodius’ prosecution, at which Cicero was a hostile witness (in 61)
Pompey returned from East and celebrated huge triumph towards the end of the year. Cicero failed to get him behind his Concordia ordinum largely because of the Optimates’ determination to ‘bring Pompey down to size’.
The ‘year of Julius and Caesar’ – total domination of the political scene by the ‘Tri’, JC’s Plebs and Pompey’s veteran soldiers. ‘Fasces and Faeces.’ Bibulus retired to his house and ‘proclaimed the omens’ every business day.
58-49 Caesar in Gaul
Conference at Luca: ‘recantation’ letter; supports JC’s provincial command being prolonged; basically retires from public life and writes de Oratore; follows Pompey’s and JC’s instructions and defends Gabinius and Vatinius respectively
Julia, daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompey, died in childbirth. Pompey refused the hand of JC’s great niece (Octavia – sister of the future Emperor Augustus) and married into the Calpurnius family instead – Republican.
Pompey brought in 5-year gap between consulship and proconsulship with important consequences for Cicero, and quite probably for JC.
In June, Cicero arrived in Asia to undertake his proconsulship of Cilicia (accompanied by Marcus Jnr, Quintus Snr and Jnr, and Tiro)
Pompey slowly won over to the Republicans’/Ops’ cause.
Senate requested a legion from each commander: Caesar gave one, and Pompey gave the one he’d previously lent Caesar – so JC lost two in effect.
December: Curio’s proposal in Senate for full disarmament (as long as JC became consul of 49?) agreed by 370-22. Vetoed.
Cicero returned in December hoping for Triumph -still therefore in nominal command of troops.
They ‘fled’ north to Caesar’s winter camp near the river Rubicon where Caesar then crossed that river with one legion to start what turned into full-scale civil war.
Pompey and republicans amazed at JC’s speed of attack took what armies they had east to Brundisium to (re)gain strength overseas in Greece and Asia.
At Corfinium, Domitius Ahenobarbus tried to make a stand, was soundly beaten but then spared by JC.
Cicero – – disappointed by Pompey’s lack of action stayed at Capua.
Met JC at Formiae. Couldn’t be persuaded even by JC to come to Rome and lend his weight to JC’s plans for the future. Tullia gave birth in May, same time as JC went to Spain to hunt down Pomp’s Spanish legions. So Cicero decided at last in June (7th) he must go to Pompey and the republicans at Dyrrhachium. Not much use there.
Divorces Terentia either in late 47 or early 46.
The year was 445 days long – the great year of JC’s reforms. He was appointed Dictator for 10 years.
Divorced Publilia for not showing enough sympathy/grief.
JC defeated last of the Pompeians/Republicans in Spain – celebrated Triumph on return. Symptomatic of ‘getting it wrong’. As was making Caninius consul on the last day for 11 hours! A few days previously in December, JC went for dinner at Cicero’s place in Puteoli while visiting an adviser Philippus, who owned a neighbouring estate and was married to his niece Atia. His great-nephew who had accompanied JC to Spain) was not there as he had gone to Illyricum to continue military training – Octavius.
Cicero not involved at all, but was acclaimed by the assassins. He tried to get them to move down from the Capitol and call the SCU – giving Praetors power of arrest and armed force. They didn’t listen. Deal done with MA – JC’s acts to stay in place in return for amnesty for assassins. MA gave famous funeral speech and announced JC’s will to the People. Assassins left Rome for country homes. MA in control of legislation and money. Until the young heir Octavius arrived in April . . .